22.04.2011

Semana Santa

bir hafta boyunca.. dur durak bilmeden, bıkmadan, usanmadan.. koşmak, yürümek

La Paz’dan taaa Cochabamba’ya..tam iki-yüz-otuz-iki kilometre.

Adayışa Ayakta Alkış !

Tabii bana aynı yolu, semi cama otobüs ile, 7 saatte, 60b’ya gitmek daha cazip geldi 😛

Sürekli içen memleket son 3 gün alkol satışını durduruyor. Her öğünde et yiyen bolivyalılar bu hafta kırmızı et hiç yemiyor ve her gün 12’ye kadar oruç tutuyorlar. 1 hafta ardından da 12 kabileleri ve ‘son yemek’i anmak için 12 ayrı tabakla kutlama yapıyorlar.

 

Evet dindar ya da değil, ülkenin % 95’i katolik..

peki ya ötekiler.. kökleri..inançları, gelenekleri:

ORIGIN

Many ancient Andean peoples traced their origins to ancestral deities. Multiple ayllus could share similar ancestral origins. The Inca claimed descent from the Sun and the Moon, their Father and Mother. Many ayllus claimed descent from early proto-humans that they emerged from local sites in nature called pacarinas.

The earliest ancestors of the Inca were known as Ayar, the first of which was Manco Capac or Ayar Manco. Inca mythology tells of his travels, in which he and the Ayar shaped and marked the land and introduced the cultivation of maize.

The Inca’s were an ancient civilization that lived in what is now present day Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Columbia, and Argentina. This empire lasted from 1800 B.C. to the early 1500s. The Inca’s living grounds consisted of mountainous regions and dry scorching deserts along the Pacific Coast. The area suffered from devastating earthquakes, catastrophic volcanoes, and terrible hail storms. The Inca’s believed the gods caused these horrific events when they disobeyed them.

The Incas had a polytheistic religion, which means they believed in many gods. God’s were very important to the Incas. The Incas believed that everything that happened happened for a reason and was caused by the gods. They believed the gods controlled everyone and everything and because of this they tried to please them. In order to please the gods, the Incas frequently performed sacrifices. The sacrificed foods, animals, and even people. Over a hundred kids were sacrificed to the rain god every year. Gods were an integral aspect to the Inca religion.

The Incas worshipped many gods like the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians! They worshipped six main gods: Inti, Viracocha, Mama Quilla, Pachamama, Illapa, Collier. Inti, the sun god, was the main god. Inti controlled everyone just like Zeus did to the Greeks. His assistants were the moon, stars, thunder, sea, and earth gods.

The Incas believed that each god was connected with some characteristic of nature or natural force. They mainly worshipped agricultural gods and goddesses. They asked their gods for good crops, health, and their welfare.

Inca life is still evident in modern day Peru, where the Incas used to live. Even thought the Spaniards tried to wipe out all of the Inca customs, some still exist today..

RELIGIOUS EXPANSION

Religious traditions in the Andes tended to vary among different ayllus. While the Inca generally allowed or even incorporated local deities and heroes of the ayllus they conquered, they did bring their gods to those peoples by incorporating them in law such as required sacrifice. The Inca attempted to combine their deities with conquered ones in ways that raised the status of their own. One example of this is Pachamama, the goddess of earth, who was worshipped long before the rise of the Inca. In the Inca mythology Pachamama having been integrated was placed below the Moon who the Inca held ruled over all female gods.

Duality

A prominent theme in Inca mythology is the duality of the Cosmos. The realms were separated into the upper and lower realms, the Hanan Pacha and the Ukhu Pacha and Hurin Pacha. Hanan Pacha, the upper world, consisted of the deities of the sun, moon, stars, rainbow, and lightning while Ukhu Pacha and Hurin Pacha were the realms of Pachamama, the earth mother, and the ancestors and heroes of the Inca or other ayllus. Kay Pacha, the realm of the outer earth, where humans resided was viewed as an intermediary realm between Hanan Pacha and Ukhu Pacha. The realms were represented by the condor (upper world), puma (outer earth) and snake (inner earth).

Divination

Divination was an important part of Inca religion, as reflected in the following quote:

“The native elements are more obvious in the case of the sunrise divination. Apachetas, coca and the sun were major elements in pre-Conquest religion, and divination, the worship of sacred mountains and the bringing retribution against enemies were important ritual practices.”

Deities

Inca deities occupied the three realms:

  • HANAN PACHA; the celestial realm in the sky.
  • UKU PACHA; the inner earth.
  • CAY PACHA; the outer earth where humans live.

The most important deities of Hanan Pacha were INTI, the Sun God, and MAMA QUILLA, the Moon Goddess.

Ukase Paco was the domain of Panamanian, the Earth Mother, who is universal to Andean mythologies. Kanopa was the God of Pregnancy.

Con-Tici Viracocha Pachayachachic, The First God, creator of the three realms and their inhabitants, was also the father of Inti.

Viracocha- creator god- believed that he created all the gods, earth, and people

Mama Quilla- moon god/ mother of all gods

Mictlantecuhtli- god of the dead

Hutzilopochtl- war god

Tipe Totec- god of spring and vegetation

Tlaloc- god of rain and agricultural fertility

Quetzalcoatl- god of nature

Pachamama- god of the earth

Illapa- god of thunder

Colliur- god of the stars

Apus: mountain spirit for travelers

Achachilas: mountain spirit for ayllu (tribe)

Talismans guard against evil or brng good luck

Ekeko  – elflere benzeyen varlıklar

Aymara bolluk tanrısı- evsizlerin ev bulması ve başarıları

kamplumbağa – sağlık

kurbağa – iyi şans

Baykuş – bilgelik, okulda başarı

Condor –İyi Yol’lar

 

Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes. Pachamama is usually translated as Mother Earth, but a more literal translation would be “Mother world” (in Aymara and Quechua mama = mother / pacha = world or land; and later widened in a modern meaning as the cosmos or the universe). Pachamama and Inti are the most benevolent deities; they are worshiped in parts of the Andean mountain ranges, also known as Tawantinsuyu (the former Inca Empire) (stretching from present day Ecuador to Chile and northern Argentina being present day Peru the center of the empire with its capital city in Cuzco).

In Inca mythology, Mama Pacha or Pachamama is a fertility goddess who presides over planting and harvesting. She causes earthquakes. Her husband was either Pacha Camac or Inti, depending on the source. Llamas are sacrificed to her. After the conquest by Spain, which forced conversion to Roman Catholicism, the figure of the Virgin Mary became united with that of the Pachamama for many of the indigenous people. Roman Catholicism is a syncretic religion, and the people worship Pachamama through it, in an indigenous ritual in some parts of Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru (Merlino y Rabey 1992).

Since Pachamama is a “good mother”, people usually toast to her honor before every meeting or festivity, in some regions by spilling a small amount of chicha on the floor, before drinking the rest. Bu geleneği çok beğendim. Öğrendiğimden beri de yapmaya karar verdim :) This toast is called challa and it is made almost everyday. Pachamama has a special worship day called Martes de challa (Challa’s Tuesday), when people bury food, throw candies, and burn incense. In some cases, celebrants assist traditional priests, known as yatiris in Aymara, in performing ancient rites to bring good luck or the good will of the goddess, such as sacrificing guinea pigs or burning llama fetuses (although this is no longer common). The festival coincides with Shrove Tuesday, also celebrated as Carnevale or Mardi Gras.

The central ritual to Pachamama is the Challa or Pago (Payment). It is carried out during all the month of August, and in many places also on the first Friday of each month. Cochabamba’da aynen, her ayın ilk cuması yapılıyordu bu gelenek ve tıklım tıklım, çok nadirmiş gibi dolup taşıyordu! Eskiden böyle kutlandığını sanmıyorum ama günümüzde, herkes sarhoşlukan saçmalayana kadar party bitmiyor, kahkahalar salyalarla karışıp, şnsanların sosyalleştiği bir aktivite olarak değerlendiriliyor.